| 
  • If you are citizen of an European Union member nation, you may not use this service unless you are at least 16 years old.

  • You already know Dokkio is an AI-powered assistant to organize & manage your digital files & messages. Very soon, Dokkio will support Outlook as well as One Drive. Check it out today!

View
 

History of School Segregation

Page history last edited by gjsands@k12.carr.org 14 years, 1 month ago

 

              

Timeline of School Integration in the US

 

 

1845:  The Massachusetts Supreme Court rules that segregated schools are permissible under the states constitution (Roberts v. City of Boston)

 

 

1857:  The Dred Scott decision upholds the denial of citizenship to African Americans

 

 

1861:  Southern states secede from the Union. The Civil War begins

 

 

1863:  President Lincoln issues the Emancipation Proclamation

 

 

1865:  The Civil War ends. Thirteenth Amendment enacted to abolish slavery

 

 

1868:  The Fourteenth Amendment is ratified with equal protection under the law. Citizenship is given to African Americans

 

 

1875:  Civil Rights Act of 1875 bans racial discrimination in public accommodations

 

 

1883:  The Supreme Court strikes down the Civil Rights Act of 1875

 

 

1890:  Louisiana passes the first Jim Crow law requiring separate accommodations for Whites and Blacks

 

 

1896: The Supreme Court authorizes segregation in Plessy v. Ferguson (as "separate but equal")

 

1936:  11) The Maryland Supreme Court requires The University of Maryland to admit a black student because no state-supported law school exists in Maryland for black students. (2) The Supreme Court determines that it is unconstitutional to isolate a black law student (Oklahoma) fromhis white peers.

 

1950: The Supreme Court requires TExas to admit black students to their law school rather than create a new law school for blacks. 

 

1952: The Supreme Court begins hearing arguments in Brown vs. The Board of Education (Topeka, Kansas) .  Thurgood Marshall acts as lead counsel for the African-American children.

 

1954 The Supreme Court, under Earl Warren, Chief Justice, issues a unanimous decision stating that separate schools are "inherently unequal".

 

1955: In Brown II, the Supreme Court issues and order to the lower federal courts to require that they desegregate "with all deliberate speed".

 

Source:  Teaching Tolerance Magazine, Number 25, Spring 2004

 


 

Changes in Carroll County

 

Carroll County Board of Education Statement on Integration;1955

 

The Board of Education of Carroll County, at its meeting on August 17th, approved a policy in connection with integration of Negro pupils to be operative for the school year 1955-56 as follow:

 

1.      Transportation to the Robert Moton and Johnsville schools will be continued as in 1954-55 and a complete staff of teachers will be assigned to these schools.

 

 

2.      Professional meetings on the county level and social affairs of the Carroll County teachers. Associations will continue to include all personnel, white and Negro.

 

 

3.      An integrated county-wide program for interschool athletics will be operated through out the school year 1955-56, and thereafter.

 

 

4.      The county-wide music events will be integrated and will include both white and Negro participants.    

 

 

5.      All schools will be invited to participate in the spring dance for elementary schools.

 

 

6.      Efforts will continue to be made by the county administration to work out plans for solving any other problems connected with integration.

 

 

7.      Whenever necessary, in the judgment of the county school administration, Negro and white children will be transported on the same busses.

 

 

8.      Requests for transfer or admission to different schools on the part of all pupils will be made by the parents of pupils direct to the county superintendent and each case will be judged separately with due consideration being given to adequacy of school facilities, overcrowding, etc.

 

 

9.      All decisions made in connection with transfer of pupils will be evaluated ona  case by case basis of individual pupils’ welfare and education progress.

 

 

10.  No further action in connection with integration is contemplated until after the report is received from a citizens’ committee recently constituted.  It is expected that this report will be made within the next three months.  Other major changes for 1955-1956 are not contemplated at this time.

 

 

Source:

 

From Our Front Porch, p 6-16, Jim Lee.

 

Published by

The Carroll County Times

 

_________________________________________________________________________________________

 

 

History of Integration within Carroll County Public Schools

Excerpts from Board Minutes

Provided by Charles Ecker, Superintendent of Carroll County Public Schools

 

May 7th, 1935-

           

The Negro high school students from Union Bridge and Ridgeville had previously paid for their transportation and were not insured in case of an accident. The Board chose to stop this practice and pay the amount necessary to compensate the bus driver.

 

July 5th, 1938-

 

Eight Negro children from Taneytown decidedly had no public school opportunities. Although the situation was briefly discussed, no action was taken.

 

December 3rd, 1940-

 

The Board approved the equalization of Negro teachers’ salaries to those of the white teachers. It was decided that the increments to the salaries be distributed throughout three years, instead of the pre-discussed two years.

 

July 7th, 1953-

 

The Superintendent read to the Board a letter from Dr. Pullen regarding the action of the Supreme Court in connection with the school segregation issue.

                                   

July 12th, 1955-

 

It was directed that no further statement be made, at this time, regarding the county plans for integration. This action was taken with the understanding that the Board sees no legal way, at this time, to deny the application of any Negro to a school or schools which heretofore have been white schools.

                                   

August 17th, 1955-

 

The Board approved a policy statement on integration for the 1955-1956 school year. Included in the policy statement was transportation provided to Robert Moton and Johnsville Schools. Complete staffs of teachers were assigned to these two schools. Professional meetings and social affairs of the Carroll County Teachers Association will continue to include all teaching personnel, white and Negro. All inter-school athletics were integrated. All county-wide music events will be integrated. Negro and white children will be transported on the same buses.

 

Requests for transfer or admission to different schools on the part of all pupils will be made by the parents of pupils direct to the county Superintendent and each case will be judged separately with due consideration being given to the adequacy of school facilities, overcrowding, etc.

 

September 9th, 1955

 

Citizens from the New Windsor and Union Bridge communities attended the Board meeting to share a letter of opposition from the community regarding school integration.

 

April 15th, 1958

 

An announcement regarding policy with respect to integration was distributed and approved by Board members.

 

May 19th, 1959

 

The Board approved a policy statement in connection with school integration and the Supreme Court interpretation of May 1954.  The Board directed that the dates of June 3, 4, and 5 be designated as the 1959 period during which applications would be received involving the transfer of pupils to schools other than those other than those attended in other than those attended in the previous school year.

 

April 15, 1958

 

An announcement regarding policy with respect to integration was distributed and approved by Board members.

 

May 19, 1959

 

The Board approved a policy statement in a connection with school integration and the Supreme Court interpretation of May 1954. The Board directed that the dates of June 3, 4, and 5, be designated as the 1959 period during which applications would be received involving the transfer of pupils to schools other than those attended in the previous school year. Existing schools would continue to be maintained and operated. School transpiration would continue on existing routes. Should applications be properly submitted to the executive officials of the school system on the correct dates, the Board determined successful integration would reasonably occur.

 

February 6, 1962

 

After the State Board of Education released an integration statement related to all Maryland schools, the Superintendent advised the Board that a special meeting would be called to discuss the matter. Decidedly, the Superintendent would prepare a new statement on integration to be presented at a later date.

 

 

                             

                    

 

Comments (0)

You don't have permission to comment on this page.